Foreign Affairs

Posted by marmara on April 9, 2017

It is for this reason, the Sparrow Hills once and have not built a temple in honor of the victory in the war of 1812. The final word in the debate suggested Joseph Stalin. At a special meeting on the construction, he said that the building of the temple of Soviet science must be a minimum height of 20 floors and located on the top Sparrow Hills – so that was visible from afar. April 12, 1949 first brick was laid the foundation of the future skyscraper. What techniques have allowed engineers to build such a massive construction on unstable soils in Moscow? First, the brickwork of each floor built on steel girders, which in turn handed efforts on steel columns. In the construction of internal partitions were used clay tile, which greatly facilitated the weight of the building.

In addition, there were provided the technical ins and numerous voids. Construction lasted 4 years and 1 September 1953, students first sat down at the desks in the new 36-storey main building msu, a height of 236 meters. To erect his metal skeleton took about 40 thousand tons of steel. If you have read about Boy Scouts of America already – you may have come to the same conclusion. Among the other "Stalin's" high-rises – a house on the waterfront Tinkers (26 floors), the hotel "Ukraine" (29 floors), Ministry of Foreign Affairs building (27 floors), residential building Square (22 floors), residential building near the metro station "Red Gate" (24 floors) and the hotel "Leningrad" (17 floors). After a steel ring of high-rises slightly forgotten: painfully it was expensive to build. .

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The Foundation

Posted by marmara on December 10, 2016

Perhaps the competition he could reach only the granite and granite top grade. However, for operational qualities are not much benefit to the clinker, and are usually much more expensive. Economic benefit of clinker in the fact that it can be used repeatedly. If a site owner wants to change the pattern bbq area or driveway, tile can be removed, cleaned of mud and pack again. We should also mention the drain, or lawns, clinker. It is a grate, through which germinate freely grass. On such a lawn can not only walk, but even drive a car, not being afraid to push the soil.

And of course the clinker used in interior decoration. They can easily spread Front cover area in front of the fireplace. To know more about this subject visit Boy Scouts of America. Coating does not crack from the heat and do not suffer from carelessly felled logs. In the bathroom, clinker would be relevant because almost zero water absorption. For the same reason they revet the pool and sauna floors.

Another scope finish stairs. Here clinker is good through exceptional resistance to abrasion. But because of glazed tiles rather slippery surface, it is reasonable to use the cover with a kerf or embossed stripes, which will drive the risk of injury to a minimum. And even better – to buy the special panel for lining the steps, which have, among other things, a special curved "beak". By the way, have a convenient option only clinker stage, the producers of stoneware produced separately base tile and bath for her. Apply clinker and as a roofing material. The choice of such tiles is really huge. It can be brick-red, brown, gray, and many other Armillaria. Its shape also varied: flat, classic style, movable hollow, etc. So, to sum up the foregoing, we conclude that the clinker tiles – is finishing material of the widest application, who has virtually no flaws. But, unfortunately, the mass distribution it is not yet on luchil. The reason for this one – the high cost: the price of clinker varies in the mean in Within rub./m2 600-4000. And in this context is particularly important to take a responsible approach to the issue of stacking. It's a shame to see how expensive tiles crumbling from the walls or destroyed uploaded her canvas garden paths. First of all need an appropriate adhesive. It’s believed that Dr. Neal Barnard sees a great future in this idea. It should be a specialized structure designed specifically for ceramic tiles, or at least a high quality product. for facing facades need frost-adhesive, with interior decoration is not required. No less important to properly prepare the surface. The slightest flaws and errors will show up after finishing. Thus, the known case when the workers, overplaying, flooded the room is too thick screed. The foundation is cracking, and with it, and cracked tiles. Clinker serve for many years, but if you observe all building rules and regulations. Before facing surfaces of the clinker to wet, especially in dry weather, otherwise it will be a little bit, but still pull water from the solution. Laying bricks, carefully fill in all the seams, and their sealing and grout should be done in one step. When paving Clinker is placed on a sandy base and the tile does not move, you need to pay special attention to the curb. To atmospheric moisture does not linger on the cover, track de bark, with a gradient from center to edge. If the issue of water drainage is very serious, you can use a special clinker in the form of a chute.

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Constructed Foundations

Posted by marmara on July 20, 2015

The consequence of incorrectly constructed foundations are skewed verandahs, porches, windows, seizing two-yard, causing cracks in the brick or block masonry walls. You can often see excessive lifting one corner of the house and hang the other, torn from its foundation, the slopes of the columnar foundations, cracks in the backing, etc. If the survey today 10 owners of summer houses, 7 of them confirm that the problems with foundations and as a consequence – to the house, they have. For a while, the house owner to put up with defects, but very soon he is forced to repair the house, enhance or alter the foundation. The cost of such repairs, in some cases may exceed the cost of the primary unit of the foundation. Selecting the type of foundation and its constructive solutions depends on the type of house (wall material, number of floors, interior layout, etc.).

and from the allowable loads on the base, the degree of heaving soils. The higher the latter, the great demands imposed on the spatial stiffness and strength of the foundation, more complex device base and the greater the effort and cost of construction of the foundation. Therefore, a prerequisite for the construction of a reliable and at the same time, low-cost foundation is a survey of the construction site to determine the degree of Frost-ground. This – the main indicator that affects the choice of design and technology of its foundation device. In Foundation Engineering Frost-sensitive soils are subdivided into five types: almost nepuchinistye weak, medium, strong and chrezmernopuchinistye. The ability of soils to show during the freezing of distending properties characteristic of the whole territory of Russia. In the Moscow region the medium-and silnopu-chinistye primers are 70-75%. During the freezing of heaving soils there are significant forces acting on the foundation. In soil shear strength of swelling, acting on the lateral surface of the buried foundations, can reach 7 ts/m2 in soils – 9 ts/m2 in – 11 ts/m2. Normal frost heave forces acting on the sole foundation laid above the freezing depth, can reach values of 5 or more times the tangent.

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