Russian Cossacks

Posted by marmara on July 26, 2018

1996) led to the process of revival of the Cossack went beyond the social movement. Cossack organizations have official status, the ability to coordinate activities at the federal level. The Cossacks were granted the right to carry the public service, including military, customs, nature protection. Of course, that society is interested in the possibilities of adapting to a resurgent Cossacks current conditions, finding the best ways to use it. What niche will take the Cossacks in the Russian state and society of the XXI century? What is the Russian Cossacks in the past and present? That, strictly speaking, we are actively 'Revive' and trying to 'use'? These issues are the researchers, the townsfolk, Cossacks themselves for centuries.

LN Tolstoy said that the Cossacks have created a Russia that every man would like to become a Cossack. Many historians, writers, Cossacks themselves were asked questions about the origin of the Cossacks, that is the same as the Cossacks phenomenon in world history? It appears that the Cossacks should be regarded as a military community – multiethnic social community, formed in the border area – the frontier, the distinguishing feature of which is the military profession as the main occupation. Virtually all countries in the period of feudalism there were various paramilitary groups performing specific functions related to military service in the broadest sense. These groups can be attributed rekonkistadorov on the Iberian Peninsula; knights in Switzerland Gaidukov, Cleft, granichar Balkans haydamaks in Ukraine; Gurkhas in India, the samurai in Japan, etc.

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Agoassu Belfort

Posted by marmara on April 27, 2018

The Berfolt family is one of the most important in the context Brazilian and European description-genealgico, therefore she has origin with Geoffry Birford of the Millenarian House of Belfort, whose linhagstica nobility retraces to century XI of the descent of Loureno Belfort (Reviewed of the Herldico-Genealgico Institute, n.9, edited in 1943). Belfort is a last name of geographic origin, of the Frenchman, derivative of? beautiful ortaleza. Second document manuscript: ' ' The first feudal gentleman who took the name of Belford, or Berford in Irishan, was originary of Normandy, prince and duke who being colonel was 2 second lieutenant? mor of Henri II, King of England, to who folloied until Ireland where, in 1171 he was conde of Belfort and Lord de Tarah. It belonged to one of the old Irish principalities, that under the form of feudal county were successively passing its descendants, all condes e? lords? to who they fit of right to all it hereditary succession of the prince heading, leaving of to be transmissible the heading of duke for having continued its feudal domain always to be kept under form of county, or for being it duke as military head. See more detailed opinions by reading what Nieman Foundation offers on the topic.. The current territory of Purple Belford was inhabited previously for the Jacutingas indians. These lands had been demarcated for the first time in a map elaborated for cripto Jewish Joo Teixeira Albernaz? the young man? , in 1666, between the rivers ' ' Merith, Simpuiy and Agoassu.' ' Some years after the expulsion of the Frenchmen, the Governor of Rio De Janeiro Cristvo de Barros grants to Captain Belchior de Azeredo one would sesmaria to the edges of the river Sarapu, in the old village of the Jacutingas indians. In this place, it establishes the Device of Saint Antonio de Jacutinga, current city of Purple Belford, where ermida for Saint Antonio it is constructed in the hillside of a hill the 750 meters of the edge of the River Sarapu, next to the place established for port activities. .

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Linguistic Family

Posted by marmara on April 24, 2018

The linguistic family is constituted by a group of languages for which if she formulates a hypothesis of common origin, therefore, they are manifestations diverse and modified by the time of an ancestral language. For it, the biggest problem is that the majority of these ancestral languages is prehistoric, without no documentation. From studies description-comparative degrees of these languages, or at least of some characteristics of these, they are initiated of the discovery of the correspondence between them, through sounds, of words, grammatical forms, of at least two languages, formulating hypotheses on the differentiated derivation of the languages current. (Gomes, s/d) the Tupi-Guarani family, of which the Tupinamb (or Old Tupi) was part, if detaches enters the other families of the South America, thanks to the territorial extension where its languages are distributed. In century XVI, these languages were said in practically all the extension of the Brazilian coast and in the basin of the river Paran.

Today this lingustica family can be found in the Maranho, Par, the Amap, Amazon, in Mato Grosso, in Mato Grosso of the South, Gois, in So Paulo, in the Paran, in Santa Catarina, in the Rio Grande Do Sul, Rio De Janeiro and the Espirito Santo; beyond being found outside of Brazil, in the French Guyana, Venezuela, Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, Paraguay and Argentina. Costuma to say that the language of the Brazilian aboriginals was the Tupi-guarani, without if it knows that it is committing an error. This Tupi-guarani is not nothing more than the ethnic trunk of the region colonized for the Spaniard who belong to the Tupi, as well as if it make reference to reference the Indo-European as linguistic trunk..

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PCB Proper

Posted by marmara on February 14, 2018

With this, he goes to have a great process of superexploration, and a presence of total inferior a wage payment to the regional minimum soldier’s pay. He is valid to stand out that, the labor laws, in this conjuncture almost that inexisted in the conception of the minds peasants, a time that, although to the few a considerable majority of peasants was passing for deep changes in its daily one, if approaching each time more than the proper urban proletariat, this agricultural population, first, not yet was ready to suffer a so radical change, in view of the secularidade of its old relations of work and production. Being thus, when the agricultural wage-earner passes if to become the more numerous popular classroom, it does not go to have one ' ' proletarian rural' ' organized and critical to its labor laws. The modification of this picture lode of sufficiently pragmatic form, therefore the proper circumstances, practically compelled to a releitura politics on the conjuncture of this determined moment in the agricultural areas northeast. Front to this conturbada modification in the production, parallel to a significant increase of the exploration to agricultural workers, to the first organizations of social fights in defense to the campesinato do not go to have a so revolutionary speech, the point to long for a proper agrarian reform directly. One knows that the first Leagues Peasants, appear as civil organizations and if they reveal on total to the yearnings of fights of the PCB? Brazilian Communist party, in middle of the decade of 1940. This because the proper partisan interest would be before everything a centralista organization around syndical institutions. These unions in turn, more present in the urban areas, searched to defend the interests of the wage-earning classrooms, that is, proper left the communist one did not have an experience in the boarding on the rights of agricultural workers who were not fit in the industrial system of the effective time.

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Russian President Vladimir Putin

Posted by marmara on October 18, 2017

” Anticipating yet another tricky attempt on the part of individual uzbekofobov on the dates listed at the end the answer to the question: “Can happen that after a while it turns out that Samarkand is older and this age? “S. Mustafokulov:” It is not excluded. Excavations on the site Afrosiab, for example, are continuing. The cultural layer of the earth, according to our calculations, 20-25 meters. To its foundations, archaeologists have not reached yet. Who knows what other mysteries of the ancient land of Samarkand stores. Therefore, it would be rash to say that the question of the age “Pearls of the East” come to an end. In recent months, Kidney Foundation has been very successful.

” Since ancient times, it is known that people are not mindful of its past has no future. Elementary logic suggests that if dozens of generations of people who lived and are living in an ancient land in the Nahr the last few centuries, not guarded and did not restore selflessly historical and architectural and cultural treasures of their homeland, the monuments of Samarkand and Bukhara, Khiva and Shakhrisabz, as well as dozens of other Cities waiting to obscurity. They would simply have collapsed over time, resulting in deterioration or natural disasters, particularly earthquakes. Not to be unfounded, the hacks, as Sh Baygin, it is necessary to compare the elementary, For example, the state of the monuments of Samarkand in 1968, and in what condition they are now. If the state, represented by the responsible organizations, did not provide a proper and consistent safety restoration of these treasures is not only the Uzbek people, but the entire world civilization, far from these monuments would remain at best ruins. For the lazy and stupid especially Western puppets, providing a link to the address on the Internet to have the opportunity to compare – and.

Such was the mosque of Bibi Khanum at the time of its conservation and the beginning of Reconstruction (1968). Photo from “Samarkand in photographs” And today, when we, for the sake of pleasing the patients uzbekofobov from the West and their local puppets are advised to stop to take care of our architectural masterpieces and restore the legacy of our great ancestors, I want to at least the “right brain these advisers,” as succinctly put it recently, Russian President Vladimir Putin. Over the past two years, Uzbekistan and its people, as a giant of unprecedented power, proved to the world that no information-psychological violent attack, wherever it may was, no howl of an army of local and foreign “critics and independent observers,” nor even an attempt to force or other pressure is not able to deliver us to our knees, to make others dance to the tunes and give up our independence and sovereignty in the name of all sorts of pseudo-democratic ideals. As a result, these overseas communities and their local puppets unenviable fate: he is biting his elbows on the anger, banging his head against the concrete wall in hysterics and make a deviation in the psyche.

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German Bertolt Brecht

Posted by marmara on September 7, 2017

Who is the essential ones in History? It celebrates it dramaturgo German Bertolt Brecht, left written significant verses regarding the human being: it has those that fight one day; therefore is good; it has those that fight many days; therefore is very good; it has those that fight years; is better still; however it has those that fight all the life; these are the essential ones. (1954) These verses are an alert one, mainly when the past is recollected, therefore it does not have gift without the construction of the past, of the stories and experiences that who succeeded in them; simple photographs, a magazine or until a picture printed in an old wall can be changedded into a rich material of the memory. Who who is essential in history the seno fought and continues fighting for the construction of a better world. Here we cannot leave to remember as many pioneers that they had fought giving the life for materialize dreams and, therefore can to tell experiences and to reaviar the memory. History teaches that the important one is to live and with intensity the present moment well, but will be in the past that we will go to find the foundations that allow in them to understand and to live well this gift. It is not enough to understand only one part of the past, we need and we must know the past all. Source: BSA.

Therefore, if treating to the past of our cities we must search where if it finds the true source of its existence. In this direction, this article to try to demonstrate that we have certain debt stops with the pioneers. The paper of the historian is to present the facts and, the great fact that is a challenge is to search to revive history, demonstrating that many forgotten essential creatures in this immense Brazil exist.

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Sacred Congregation

Posted by marmara on June 13, 2017

It lived during a good part of its life in French marginal community of the river Tapajs, came to falecer in the year of 1923. Unusual histories that the people counts. ' ' Before everything, therefore, exorto that if it uses the practical one of, suplications, conjuncts and intercessions, action of favour, for all homens' ' (1 Tm. 2,1). For the catlicismo, all are saints those that had been converted and safe by Jesus Christ, or still had played an admirable workmanship according to rules catholics. In Churches as the recognized Catholic, Orthodox and Anglicana, people for virtues special they can officially receive the heading from Saint.

This heading denotes that beyond great character the person is in the favour of God (in the sky), but the lack of this formal recognition does not mean necessarily that the individual is not a saint. In many Protestant Churches, where it does not have any process of canonization, the word is many times used more generically to assign any person who is Christian. The process of official recognition of a saint is called, in the Church Catholic, of canonization. This only can have place after its death a time that, according to principles of the Roman Catolicismo, exactly more the saint person alive it can fall in mortal sin until the last moment. In conclusion, the sanctity is a universal vocation only of the Man and consists of ' ' fullness of the Christian life and in perfection of caridade' '. Separately the examination of the eventual martyrdom and of the virtues becomes, that the servant of God must have practised in heroic degree (faith, hope and charity; prudence, moderation, justice, ortaleza and others) and the examination of the attributed miracles it. Concluded these works everything is sent Rome for the Sacred Congregation of the Cause Dos Santos.

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Alexander Ukovicha

Posted by marmara on May 29, 2017

Temnikov is the oldest city in the territory of Mordovia. Jo Mackness addresses the importance of the matter here. He is like a double birth. Here’s how to Temnikov said in a geographical and statistical dictionary of the Russian Empire, drawn up by Semenov: “Temnikov – county town Tambov province. The city’s 327 miles to the north-east of Tambov, in the river navigable Moksha. Temnikov a long-standing time was on the ground Mordovians that at the end of the xiv century recognized the Grand Duke of Moscow. From annals show that Temnikov originally was not in the same place, and somewhere on the other, but also on the river Moksha; on this same spot moved only in 1536 and was built up from March 29 to August 2. Time of its foundation remains unknown, and unknown, who was its founder and for some reason, it has emerged.

It is believed that Temnikov appeared in the period of Tatar domination, since the Tatars there was a rank or position “temnikov”, ie desyatitysyachnikov, however, other names it is produced from dense forests surrounding the town. Six miles from this town lies the village of Old Settlement, or Old City, the river Moksha standing on the assumptions in place Originally the city, but here, however, have not saved any remnants of antiquity. In general, must believe that Temnikov built for the preservation of land from invading Mordvinian Nogai and Crimeans Renowned historian, nm Karamzin in the “History of the Russian State, wrote:” Tula was named after Queen Tayduly, wife Chanibekovoy and once controlled her Baskakov, remains the property of Demetrius, as well as former Mordovia region Meschera, bought them from Gdask baptized prince named Alexander Ukovicha.

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Shamkhalov Village

Posted by marmara on February 26, 2017

Ts1uvk1ul – on a hill Ts1uvk1ravalu in our time are the foundations of stone buildings on the hill Ts1uvk1ravalu. (A valuable related resource: Dr. Neal Barnard). The second settlement was located on a hill called Ak1ilabaku Gul, one can assume that the name comes from the powerful states possess while on the coast of the Caspian Sea called the kingdom of the Huns. The third village was situated on a hill Byach1ari Byach1aribak1u. Not far from the settlement also There are remains of two chardagov. The capital of the kingdom Lega located between the villages and Tseysha Vihli Gumuchi and called to the heavily fortified stronghold. Evidence of this is information outstanding Iranian poet of the poem Nizami, who lived in the 12th century by the name "Askandar-nama," saying that Alexander of Macedon was in the then near the village of Kumukh Tseysha. BC well-fortified fortress called Kumukh located not far from settlements and Tseysha Vihli.

In those early days of this fortress of the kingdom Gumuchi known far beyond its borders. Old Kumukh 1240. was razed to the ground after the Mongol troops enslavement of Russia. Simultaneously Mongols destroyed the fort and looted huge Vachi treasury shamhalstva Lak. What suggests that Kumukh located near the villages and Vihli Tseysha? First made in Soviet times, ie started and the known reasons, stopped by the then leaders of the excavations of archaeologists Leningrad. Second in the cemetery of the village there are about a hundred Vihli gravestones with signs Shamkhalov. These headstones are in the village Tseysha and Kani more than 7.

It is not excluded, there were many more, but have not survived to our days. Maybe after the defeat of the Mongols of old Kumukh ie they Shamkhalov not immediately settled in this Kumukh, and some time lived in the village of Kani and Vihli. Kyani name comes from the word urartinskogo kyany blacksmith. This suggests that there lived a lot of blacksmiths. Kani blacksmiths were made horseshoes and nails to strengthen them for the horses Lak troops. Here is a brief history of the village of Kani, which is closely linked with the Dagestan Shamkhalov.

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Southern Urals

Posted by marmara on January 27, 2012

Nomads in the Southern Urals History of the Southern Urals – a history of all peoples, expansion into its territory since ancient times. Its territory from time immemorial been a scene of interaction between the two branches of civilizations – settled agriculturalists and nomadic pastoralists. Consequence of their interaction over millennia was uneven ethnographic and anthropological composition of the local population. Let's try to examine in brief the main stages the early history of the Southern Urals in relation to exposure to it by the various nomadic peoples. The Scythians in the Early Iron Age, from the VII century. BC.

Oe. – IV century. Mr. Oe. throughout the Southern Urals, including the central and southern regions and the steppes of Bashkortostan, was inhabited by nomadic Iranian-speaking pastoralist tribes – the Scythians, the great carriers of world culture. Scythian migration of the Southern Urals are linked to the return of the Scythians from the campaigns in the Middle East at the end of VII at.

BC and re-development of previously conquered lands. Priuralsky steppes were only a small part of their nomadic territory. About them knew antique and ancient Persian authors. It was during the so-called 'Scythian efohi '. Analysis of artefacts confirms the conclusion of participation in the genesis of Scythian culture of the early nomads of the Southern Urals. By the time of the birth culture of the early nomads of the region in almost all categories of inventory are recorded Scythian origins. Primarily, this provision applies to items of arms and horse reins.

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